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How to use DMN with Flower for Jira


DMN stands for Decision Model and Notation. It is a standard administered by an OMG institution and has been widely adopted across various industries. Businesses leverage DMN to design decision models that are used for automation of the decision-making processes. DMN serves as a common language to align business and IT on repeatable business rules and decision management. The notation enhances business efficiency, reduces the risk of human error, and ensures that decision models are interchangeable across the organization. SPECIFICATION OF BUSINESS DECISIONS AND BUSINESS RULES

Core elements of DMN include:

  • Decision tables – Simple and intuitive representation of decisions consisting of input, condition, and output.
  • Friendly Enough Expression Language (FEEL) – Used to express conditions in the decision tables so they can be executed.
  • Decision Requirements Diagrams (DRD) – Created when a decision can not be described in just one simple table. For example, when there are dependencies between intermediate decisions output from which serve as an input for the final decision to be made.

In Flower DMN is basically used to make decisions for BPMN gateways and update Jira issue fields on the fly. Read how Flower uses DMN

Get Started

DMN modeller

The DMN editor is integrated in the Flower BPMN modeler, so you can always switch between BPMN and DMN. Once a DMN model has been created you can evaluate the model in conjunction with the current BPMN and example Jira issues. Read more about evaluating DMN

NOTE: In contrast to the BPMN model, the DMN model is not yet versioned. The draft is at the same time also the published version.

Introducing FEEL

DMN defines the friendly enough expression language (FEEL) for the purpose of giving standard executable semantics to many kinds of expressions in decision model. It is also part of the DMN standard defined by the OMG. FEEL defines a syntax for expressing conditions that input data should be evaluated against. For example, you can describe in FEEL that a certain input data should be

  • a concrete string (like the season, that should be “summer”)
  • true or false (like the fact that our guests are vegetarians)
  • a number that is below, above or the exact same like another given number
  • a number that is between a minimum and a maximum given number
  • a date that is before, later or the same like another given date
  • …and much more

Sample FEEL Expressions

Some valid FEEL expressions (logically categorized):


  • a + b - c
  • ((a + b)/c - (d + e*2))**f
  • 1-(1+rate/12)**-term
  • (a + b)**-c
  • date("2012-12-25") + date("2012-12-24")
  • time("T13:10:06") - time("T13:10:05")
  • date and time("2012-12-24T23:59:00") + duration("P1Y")


  • "thisStringValue"
  • not("thisStringValue")
  • 5 in (<= 5)
  • 5 in ((5..10])
  • 5 in ([5..10])
  • 5 in (4,5,6)
  • 5 in (<5,>5)
  • (a + 5) >= (7 + g)
  • (a+b) between (c + d) and (e - f)
  • date("2012-12-25") > date("2012-12-24")
  • date and time("2012-12-24T23:59:00") < date and time("2012-12-25T00:00:00")


  • a or b
  • a and b
  • ((a or b) and (b or c)) or (a and d)
  • ((a > b) and (a > c)) and (b > c)
  • ((a + b) > (c - d)) and (a > b)
  • a or b or a > b
  • (x(i, j) = y) and (a > b)
  • (a + b) > (c - d) and (a > b)


  • for a in [1,2,3] return a * a
  • for age in [18..40], name in ["george", "mike", "bob"] return status

Function Definition

  • function(age) age < 21
  • function(rate, term, amount) (amount*rate/12)/(1-(1+rate/12)**-term)


  • if applicant.maritalStatus in ("M", "S") then "valid" else "not valid"
  • if Pre-Bureau Risk Category = "DECLINE" or Installment Affordable = false or Age < 18 or Monthly Income < 100 then "INELIGIBLE" else "ELIGIBLE"
  • if "Pre-Bureau Risk Category" = "DECLINE" or "Installment Affordable" = false or Age < 18 or "Monthly Income" < 100 then "INELIGIBLE" else "ELIGIBLE"


  • some ch in credit history satisfies ch.event = "bankruptcy"

Date Time Semantics

  • time("13:10:05@Etc/UTC").hour
  • time("13:10:05@Etc/UTC").minute
  • time("13:01:05+05:30").second
  • date and time("2012-12-24T23:59:00").year
  • date("2017-06-10").month
  • date("2017-06-10").day
  • duration("P13M").years
  • duration("P1Y11M").months
  • duration("P5DT12H10M").days
  • duration("P5DT12H10M").hours
  • duration("P5DT12H10M").minutes
  • duration("P5DT12H10M25S").seconds

Date Time Conversion and Equality

  • date("2012-12-25") – date("2012-12-24") = duration("P1D")
  • date and time("2012-12-24T23:59:00") + duration("PT1M") = date and time("2012-12-25T00:00:00")
  • time("23:59:00z") + duration("PT2M") = time("00:01:00@Etc/UTC")
  • date and time("2012-12-24T23:59:00") - date and time("2012-12-22T03:45:00") = duration("P2DT20H14M")
  • duration("P2Y2M") = duration("P26M")

Please note: This is not a complete list of FEEL Expressions. Please refer DMN Specification Document for detailed documentation on FEEL grammar.

Evaluate DMN in Flower

The result of evaluating a decision table is

  • undefined if no rule matched
  • an array of objects if the hit policy of the decision table is COLLECT or RULE ORDER (one array item for each matching rule)
  • an object if the hit policy of the decision table is FIRST or UNIQUE and a rule matched

The object for a matching rule contains the evaluated output value(s) of the rule. The structure is defined by the output names. Qualified names with a dot (.) inside lead to nested objects. See the following example:

3 output columns with different structure

An object for a matching rule of the above table would look like this:

  plainOutputProperty: '...',
  output: {
    property: '...',
    nested: {
       property: '...',

Supported content in decision tables

Input expressions are commonly (qualified) names, like so:

  • customerAge
  • customer.age

Input expressions are however not restricted to qualified names. You can use any expression according to S-FEEL, and additionally even function invocations, too, like so:

  • employee.salary * 12
  • convertToUSD(employee.salary)

Built-in functions

Flower supports the following built-in functions from DMN:

  • string functions: starts with, ends with, contains, upper case, lower case
  • boolean functions: not
  • list functions: list contains, count, min, max, sum, mean, and, or, append, concatenate, insert before, remove, reverse, index of, union, distinct values, flatten

Input entries

As input entries, simple unary tests according to the DMN specification are supported, with some additions:

  • an endpoint can also be arithmetic expression
  • a simple value can also be function invocation
  • a simple literal can also be a null literal
  • a date time literal can also be "date and time"
  • brackets in arithmetic expressions are supported
  • additional name symbols are not supported

Examples (the list is not complete though):

Input entrymatches if the input expression evaluates to...
42the numeric value 42
< 42a value less than 42
[41 .. 50]a value between 41 and 50 (inclusive)
10, 20either 10 or 20
<10, >20a value either less than 10 or greater than 20
"A"the string "A"
"A", "B"the string "A" or "B"
truethe boolean value true
-any value, even undefined
any value, even undefined (sams as -)
nullthe value null or undefined
not(null)any value other than null or undefined
propertythe same value as the property (must be given in the context)
object.propertythe same value as the property of the object
f(a)the same value as the function evaluated with the property (function and property must be given in the context)
limit - 10the same value as the limit minus 10
limit * 2the same value as the limit times 2
[limit.upper, limit.lower]a value between the value of two given properties of object limit
date("2017-05-01")the date value Mai 1st, 2017 (date is a built-in function)
date(property)the date which is defined by the value of the given property, the time if cropped to 00:00:00
date and time(property)the date and time which is defined by the value of the given property (date and time is a built-in function)
duration(d)the duration specified by d, an ISO 8601 duration string like P3D for three days (duration is built-in either)
duration(d) * 2twice the duration
duration(begin, end)the duration between the specified begin and end date
date(begin) + duration(d)the date that results by adding the given duration to the given date
< date(begin) + duration(d)any date before the date that results by adding the given duration to the given date

Most combinations of the syntax elements above are valid, too. For example the following is a valid input entry (although it probably does not make any sense):

not(f(a + 1), [ date(b) + duration(c.d) .. g(d) ]) 

Input variables as parameters to functions in input entries

Sometimes, one whishes to use the value of an input expression as a parameter to a function in an input entry, for example to test that a given input string contains a certain substring, where each substring to test for constitutes a different rule. This could be used for example to derive the project name from the prefix of an issue ID, like so:

Derive the project name from the prefix of an issue ID.

The starts with(string, substring) function allows to test if a string starts with a given prefix, but with S-FEEL it is not possible to use the value of an input expression as input variable to the function. Basically, if the input expression is issueId, and the input entry is starts with(issueId, "CAM"), then the input entry will be evaluated to true if the value of issueId is for example CAM-42, but a rule with this input entry will still not match since true does not equal the value of the input expression, which is CAM-42.

Flower DMN follows a pragmatic approach to allow for input variable in input entries. The convention is: if an input expression is a qualified name (in DMN sense), and an input entry contains a function which takes the same qualified name as one of its parameters, and the function evaluates to true, then the rule will match with respect to this input entry (it may still not match because of non-matching other input entries). The decision table shown above can therefore be used to derive the project name from the issue prefix.

Output entries

A simple expression according to the DMN specification is supported as output entry, with the same additions as mentioned for input entries. Since output entries are expressions, not comparisons, values like the following are not allowed:

  • < 1
  • [1 .. 2]
  • not("A")
  • empty values (this includes the dash -)

Undefined values

Flower DMN allows function and properties that are referenced by input expressions, input entries, and output entries, to be undefined or missing from the input context. Undefined values are handled as follows:

Evaluation of input expressions, input entries, and output entries

Input expressions, input entries, and output entries evaluate to undefined if they contain a function or a property which is not found in the input context or is contained there with undefined value. Undefinedness cannot be compared or checked for equality: for undefined values 'a' and 'b', the expression

a = b

evaluated to undefined, not to true.

There is one exception though: there is a built-in function 'defined' which returns true if the given argument is neither null nor undefined, and false if the given argument is null or undefined.

Matching of rules

If an input expression evaluates to undefined, any rule whose corresponding input entry is not empty (neither the empty string literal nor the dash -) does not match, regardless of to which value (or undefined) the input entry evaluates.

If an input entry evaluates to undefined, the containing rule does not match, regardless of to which value the corresponding input expression evaluates.

Decision result

If an output entry of a matching rule evaluates to undefined, the variable defined by the output name is set to undefined, if the hit policy is UNIQUE or FIRST. If the hit policy is COLLECT or RULE ORDER, the undefined output entry value is not added to the result list.

Custom functions

If you cannot rule out undefined values, your custom functions should check their arguments for undefined values, and return undefined in turn if one or more of the arguments are themselves undefined.

Passing dates as input

For input expressions, input values, or output values of the following type:

date and time(property)

the value of 'property' can be created in the following way:

// for dates only: date string in the format YYYY-MM-DD
const context = {
  property: '2018-03-01';
// for date and time: ISO8601 date/time string
const context = {
  property: '2018-03-01T14:30:00+01:00';
// Javascript date - a) from numerical year, month, ... values
const context = {
  property: new Date(2018, 2, 1, 0, 0, 0); // note that this will be implicitly in the local time zone!
// Javascript date - b) from string with explicit time zone
const context = {
  property: new Date('2018-03-01T00:00:00+01:00');
// moment-js value
const context = {
  property: moment.parseZone('2018-03-01T00:00:00+01:00')

Syntactically, any Date or moment-js value is fine, regardless of how you created it.

warning: Heads up! The built-in date function crops the time portion of a Javscript Date or moment-js date after converting the date to a UTC timezone. Therefore, date('2018-03-01T00:00:00.000+01:00') actually resolves to Feburary 28th, 2018, but not March 1st, 2018, since in UTC time zone the date/time is '2018-02-28T23:00:00.000+00:00'.

How Flower interpretes the DMN result

Flower uses the DMN result to make decisions in your BPMN model and to updates certain Jira issues, that are related with your Process Instance.

To support the development process, the Flower DMN modeller offers the possibility to test Decision Tables in conjunction with the BPMN model and Jira. For this purpose, BPMN activities including the process instance can be mapped with existing Jira issue keys.

If the "Apply DMN result" checkbox is checked, the result is applied directly. This means the decision is saved on the process instance tick and data fields are saved on the Jira tick test directly.

DMN Evaluation Modal

A general JSON format, as a result of the DMN evaluation, that Flower can interpret is of the following form:

        nodeId:{description:'Lorem ipsum'}

The following example makes a decision in the Flower process based on the summary field of the process instance:

Simple DMN decision example

This produces the following JSON. The corresponding node and gateway ids must of course be taken from the BPMN diagram.

  "issueUpdates": {
    "pi": {
      "description": "decision made here"
  "decisions": {
    "ExclusiveGateway_1cbd88k": "SequenceFlow_0vysjno"

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